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A man-made satellite must undergo a series of ground tests before launching into the sky to test the technical performance of the satellite. But the ground environment is different from the sky after all. No matter which country launches each application satellite, it must launch some technology test satellites.

From December 1966 to May 1974, the United States launched six multi-purpose technology test satellites. They are called the “Applied Technology Satellite ” series. for the future communication satellites of the United States, meteorological satellites, A lot of preparations have been made for the development and application of navigation satellites and resource satellites. 

The Shijian-1 satellite is China’s first scientific exploration and technological experiment satellite. It was launched on March 3, 1971, weighs 221 kilograms, has a polyhedron with an approximately spherical shape, and a diameter of 1 meter. Its main task is to test the onboard solar battery power supply system, active-passive temperature control system, long-life telemetry equipment, and radio circuit performance, and other space environment detection. The design life of Practical One is one year, but it actually worked in space for 8 years and did not fall until June 17, 1979. 

We know that animal experiments must be carried out before manned spaceflight to see if animals can adapt to space life, to see how weightlessness in space, the strong radiation environment has on animal growth, development, heredity, and fertility, and what protective measures are taken. Only then can people be sent to heaven carefully. 

On November 3, 1957, the Soviet Union launched an artificial satellite carrying a puppy named “Leika”-” Artificial Earth Satellite ” 2, which was the world’s first biological satellite. The 5-kg Leica lives well in a small satellite cabin. Scientists have designed a life support system for it to make the environment in the cabin the same as the ground with food. Various probes for monitoring blood pressure, respiration, heart rate, and other physiological indicators were attached to Laika’s body, and the telemetry information was returned for research by ground scientists. As humans had not yet mastered satellite recovery technology at the time, poor Laika died after traveling alone in the sky for 6 days. Since then, the former Soviet Union has implemented a biological satellite program dedicated to the study of space life sciences since 1966, basically launching a biological satellite every 1-2 years. By 1987, a total of 10 satellites had been launched, and these satellites were all compiled in the series of satellites of the “Cosmos”. The stars are equipped with monkeys, dogs, white mice, turtles, flies, bacteria, algae, plant seeds, and other creatures. Gravity physiology, radiobiology, and developmental biology experiments have been carried out on them. The longest time for satellite flight is 22 days and the shortest is 5 days. The Soviet Union’s biological satellite program is an international cooperation project.

The United States formulated a biological satellite plan in 1963. The original plan was to launch 6 satellites, but only 3 satellites were actually launched. After 1975, space life science research in the United States was completed by the Soviet Union’s “Cosmos” biological satellite. 

China also conducted space animal experiments on the retractable satellite launched on October 5, 1990. Two male mice took the lead in patronizing the universe and enjoying the nine-day scenery. Due to various maladjustments, they died before returning to the ground. 

White mice are selected into space due to their small size and strong fertility. The size of 28 white mice is equal to the size of a dog, and they have the ability to reproduce one generation in 14 days. They can conceive in space and reproduce on the ground, or they can reproduce in space after being conceived, and they can also quickly reproduce. Understand the impact of space flight on future generations. 

(United States) Applied Technology Satellite 

(Su) “Universe-1544” Biological Satellite 


(Middle) Shishi-1 Satellite  


The artificial satellite must undergo a series of ground tests before launching, but in order to test the technical performance of the satellite more comprehensively 

The satellite must be launched to the sky for verification, and the technology can only be formally applied when the technology is stable. 

The United States has conducted many experiments on technology test satellites, such as voice communications; satellite navigation; radio transmission, etc., which has made a lot of preparations for the development and application of communications satellites, weather satellites, navigation satellites, and resource satellites in the United States in the future. 

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